Construction & Installation

Proper construction of the filter box, preparation of the media, and installation of the sand is challenging, but is of critical importance to the effectiveness of the biosand filter. This section of the website explores some of the challenges which the BSF technician may face.

Designs & Modifications

Why is the present V10 biosand filter the way that it is? What about building a filter out of PVC pipe, or sheet metal? What is a Kanchan filter? This section of the website looks at the history and rational behind the biosand filter design, and alternative designs for the biosand filter.

Operation & Maintenance

The biosand filter is a living ecosystem. This section explores challenges related to how to use and maintain a biosand filter to ensure it remains effective.


Results of trials showing biosand filter performance at removing different contaminants and under different conditions.

Project Implementation
Support for starting or improving your biosand filter project.                                                                                                                                                        
Biosand Filter

Latest additions

Computer modelling shows that the current outlet configurations of the V10 and Hydraid BSFs could benefit from optimization. (Berbert, A.C.; de Almeida, R.A.; Rezende, R.V. de P.; Lautenschlager, S.R. 2016)
A nine-month long study on concrete V10 BSFs, 5 gallon bucket BSFs, and 2 gallon bucket BSFs, did not find a significant difference in E. coli removal. (Napotnik, J.A.; Baker, D.; Jellison, K.L. 2017)
(Wang, H.; Li, M.; Brockman, K.; Nguyen, T.H. 2016)
(Caution: This study did not have replicates) Reducing the initial flow rate in Hydraid filters, by modifying the outlet pipe, did not significantly improve E.coli reduction. (Kennedy, T.J.; Hernandez, E.A.; Morse, A.N.; Anderson, T.A. 2012)
(CAUTION: This experiment has significant problems. We do not recommend this paper as a reference!) The authors theorize that maximum grain size is not a significant parameter in biosand filtration. They found that using SODIS after BSF improved bacterial reductions. (Frank, T.E.; Scheie, M.L.; Cachro, V.; ñoz, A.S. 2014)