Bacterial adaptation and performance of household biosand water filters in differing temperatures

One Liner: 
The biosand filter can function in a variety of climates and temperatures, but requires time to adapt to change. The filters should not be allowed to freeze, as this negatively affects the filter's ability to remove bacteria.
TitleBacterial adaptation and performance of household biosand water filters in differing temperatures
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsArnold, N, Archer, A, Barkdoll, B
JournalWater Science and Technology: Water Supply
Pagination794 - 801
Date PublishedJan-06-2016
The household biosand filter (BSF) is a highly utilized point-of-use water treatment tool. The effect of ambient temperature on the ability of the BSF to remove microbes from water is unclear. Model filters were distributed among different temperature-controlled laboratories and dosed daily with surface
water amended with sewage. Comparison of the total coliformand Escherichia coli counts in the influent versus effluent revealed an immediate drop in the removal efficiencies of filters held in colder rooms. This performance difference, however, became less pronounced over the course of the experiment until no significant performance difference was detected between filters regardless of their ambient temperature, perhaps due to microbial adaptation within the BSFs. Subsequently, two-thirds of the filters were exposed to freezing temperatures, thawed, and re-tested for microbial removal. All filters exposed to freezing temperatures showed significant drops in microbial removal compared to control
filters. Filters exposed to the most extreme temperatures showed the greatest drop in performance.
Short TitleWater Science and Technology: Water Supply