Research Papers

Displaying 11 - 20 of 89
A multi-attribute decision-making approach to the selection of point-of-use water treatment; Pagsuyoin, S.A.; Santos, J.R.; Latayan, J.S.; Barajas, J.R., 2015
Reductions of E.coli, MS2 and PRD-1 increases as filtration rate declines. Biosand filters using crushed granite as the filtration media has superior virus reductions than using Accusand silica as the filtration media, only when the media is not backwashed. E. coli reduction did not differ significantly between the two types of filter media.
This study developed a low-cost and accurate method for field enumeration of Vibrio cholerae. Additionally, the removal efficiency of V. cholerae and coliform bacteria using biosand filtration was evaluated. Results indicate that coliform removal efficiency generally exceeded V. cholerae removal, thus highlighting the importance of conducting pathogen specific tests rather than relying completely on indicator organisms.
Investigation of the Effect of Grain Size, Flow Rate and Diffuser Design on the CAWST Biosand Filter Performance; Chan, C.C.V.; Neufeld, K.; Cusworth, D.; Gavrilovic, S.; Ngai, T., 2015
This study investigated the effect of grain size, hydraulic loading rate, batch residence time, and diffuser design on the performance of the CAWST biosand filter. Coarser grain size reduced bacterial removal efficiency. Longer residence time, on the other hand, improved bacteria removal. In terms of diffuser design, smaller holes and tighter spacing reduced bacterial removal efficiency.
Arsenic removal from drinking water by a household sand filter in Vietnam — Effect of filter usage practices on arsenic removal efficiency and microbiological water quality; Nitzsche, K.Sonja; Lan, V.Mai; Trang, P.Thi Kim; Viet, P.Hung; Berg, M.; Voegelin, A.; Planer-Friedrich, B.; Zahoransky, J.; üller, S.K.; Byrne, J.Martin; öder, C.; Behrens, S.; Kappler, A., 2015
Household sand filter in Northern Vietnam consistently reduces arsenic from groundwater by 95% irrespectively of usage practices and sand usage duration. The findings are probably transferable to other sand filters, such as the biosand filter, if similar groundwater compositions (e.g. iron:arsenic ratio >50, phosphate <2.5 mg/L), geological settings, well and sand filter properties exist.
Projects aiming to improve health cannot be just technology-driven, or the technology will under perform. Field situations are complex, and a holistic approach must be taken.
Using a biosand filter project by DHAN Foundation in India as a case study, this computer model outlines how an NGO can choose effective programme implementation strategies to increase the adoption and consistent use of household water treatment technologies in consideration of complex system interactions, trade-offs, and counter-intuitive outcomes.
Moving concrete and plastic bucket biosand filters 1 km after 9 months of operation reduced the hydraulic loading rate but significantly increased E. coli removal.
Wastewater from BSF filter maintenance is contaminated water and should be disposed of properly, not in a way that might contaminate drinking water.
CAUTION: This experiment has significant problems. We do not recommend this paper as a reference. The authors theorize that maximum grain size is not a significant parameter in biosand filtration. They found that using SODIS after BSF improved bacterial reductions.