Research Papers

Displaying 21 - 30 of 89
Wastewater from BSF filter maintenance is contaminated water and should be disposed of properly, not in a way that might contaminate drinking water.
Intermittent versus continuous operation of biosand filters.; Young-Rojanschi, C.; Madramootoo, C., 2014
Although BSFs (which are operated intermittently) effectively remove bacteria and viruses, they are not as effective as conventional slow sand filters which are operated continuously.
CAUTION: This experiment has significant problems. We do not recommend this paper as a reference. The authors theorize that maximum grain size is not a significant parameter in biosand filtration. They found that using SODIS after BSF improved bacterial reductions.
Biosand filters operated with one, two, or three day residence periods did not have statistically significant differences in E. coli removal.
A modification to the BSF was developed to allow for a continuous flow rate, improving the filter's ability to remove microbes. An additional modification to use sheet metal for the body was also tested successfully.
Measuring the Impact of Health Education Modules in Cameroon, West Africa; Chaponniere, P.A.; Cherup, S.M.; Lodge, L., 2013
Facilitating behaviour change requires a long term commitment to a community, and an ability to adapt and modify approaches over time to sensitively respond to community needs. A BSF project paired with hygiene education reduced diarrhoea in children.
A field study in Nicaragua found that biosand filters removed bacteria even when they were operated imperfectly, but recontamination of water was a problem.
Like slow sand filters, BSFs are not effective at removing hormones from drinking water. Chlorinating after filtration can improve removal, but chlorine is most effective concentrations which are higher than generally used.
The human effort required in a water intervention, such as BSF, over its lifespan (i.e. in construction, during use) should be considered when comparing alternatives, along with the gender distribution of that effort.
Bacterial contamination on household toys and association with water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in Honduras.; Stauber, C.E.; Walters, A.; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, A.M.; Sobsey, M.D., 2013
Water and sanitation indicators, such as having a BSF or a latrine, are associated with lower levels of bacterial contamination on children's toys in households.