Research Papers

Displaying 31 - 40 of 90
Like slow sand filters, BSFs are not effective at removing hormones from drinking water. Chlorinating after filtration can improve removal, but chlorine is most effective concentrations which are higher than generally used.
A randomized controlled trial of the plastic-housing BioSand filter and its impact on diarrheal disease in Copan, Honduras.; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, A.M.; Stauber, C.E.; Walters, A.R.; Meza Sanchez, R.E.; Sobsey, M.D., 2012
Households with plastic BSFs in Honduras had 39% less diarrhoea than households without, but the difference was not statistically significant.
Hydraulic Loading Rate Effect on Removal Rates in a BioSand Filter: A Pilot Study of Three Conditions; Kennedy, T.J.; Hernandez, E.A.; Morse, A.N.; Anderson, T.A., 2012
(Caution: This study did not have replicates) Reducing the initial flow rate in Hydraid filters, by modifying the outlet pipe, did not significantly improve E.coli reduction.
Metallic iron can be effective in water treatment, but then needs to be removed. The authors propose solving this problem by incorporating it into granular media filters like BSF, and provide some theoretical design guidelines.
Households with higher education levels, higher socio-economic status indicator scores, and additional treatment steps were LESS likely to be properly maintaining and operating their BSF, while households with soap were more likely to be doing it properly. Proper filter operation and maintenance of BSF, improved water source, and higher education levels were associated with reduced diarrhoea in households.
Evaluation of the Impact of the Plastic BioSand Filter on Health and Drinking Water Quality in Rural Tamale, Ghana; Stauber, C.E.; Kominek, B.; Liang, K.R.; Osman, M.K.; Sobsey, M.D., 2012
Plastic biosand filters led to a diarrhoea reduction of 60%. Water from the filters had a 97% removal of E. coli.
Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of the Plastic BioSand Water Filter in Cambodia; Stauber, C.E.; Printy, E.R.; McCarty, F.A.; Liang, K.R.; Sobsey, M.D., 2011
Households with a Hydraid BSF reported 59% less diarrhoea than households without. The BSF removed 93% of E. coli. 75-90% of households willingly paid $10 for their filter.
A quick overview of HWTS methods.
BSF's work best at removing bacteria and viruses when they have lower loading heads, lower maximum flow rates, finer sand, and longer pause periods.
A household-scale sand filter incorporating a biomass layer was developed and tested in the laboratory. Filters performed better with thicker biomass layers. Filter effectiveness increased up to day 30, and declined after day 75. (Not a BSF)