Research Papers

Displaying 41 - 50 of 89
Addressing Water Quality Issues in Rural Cameroon with Household Biosand Filters; Klopfenstein, L.; Petrasky, L.; Winton, V.; Brown, J., 2011
Successful implementation of a BSF project requires years of involvement. Users require continued education and reminders to sustain motivation, and quality control of filters being constructed is necessary.
Virus removal in BSF improved with increased pause time and with increased filter ripening. Virus removal appears to be primarily due to the activity of the microbial community.
A BSF which was modified by placing a layer of iron-oxide coated sand inside the filter bed removed E.coli better than a standard BSF. The difference was largest towards the beginning of the filter run.
A household-scale sand filter was developed and tested in Pakistan. In the field test it removed 97% E.coli, Total Coliforms, and turbidity. (Not a BSF)
Households which were using BSF had 61% less diarrhoea. After one year, 90% of BSF's were still in use, and were removing 88.4% of E. coli.
Rational design of domestic biosand filters; Kubare, M.; Haarhoff, J., 2010
The most important part of biosand filter design is the careful selection of appropriate filter media (i.e effective grain size, uniformity coefficient, porosity).
Microbial and chemical assessment of ceramic and BioSand water filters in rural Cambodia; Murphy, H.M.; Sampson, M.; Farahbakhsh, K.; McBean, E., 2010
In this study in Cambodia, the effluent of many ceramic and biosand filters had nitrite levels exceeding the WHO guideline levels for chronic exposure (a potential risk factor for blue baby syndrome).
Effect of production variables on microbiological removal in locally-produced ceramic filters for household water treatment.; Lantagne, D.; Klarman, M.; Mayer, A.; Preston, K.; Napotnik, J.; Jellison, K., 2010
The effectiveness of ceramic pot filters are effected by the clay:sawdust ratio and the type of "burnable" used. Whether the colloidal silver was painted on or burned in did not make a difference in this study.
Nitrification, denitrification, and ammonification occur in BSF. This can be a problem when influent water is very high in nitrogen (and very low in oxygen), as nitrite and nitrate levels may increase to dangerous levels.
Experiments in a lab found that a dual media column with a layer of manganese oxide coated sand and a layer of iron hydroxide coated sand was better at removing zinc than a column with just iron hydroxide coated sand. Both were better than a plain sand column at removing bacteria.