Research Papers

Displaying 51 - 60 of 90
Rational design of domestic biosand filters; Kubare, M.; Haarhoff, J., 2010
The most important part of biosand filter design is the careful selection of appropriate filter media (i.e effective grain size, uniformity coefficient, porosity).
Microbial and chemical assessment of ceramic and BioSand water filters in rural Cambodia; Murphy, H.M.; Sampson, M.; Farahbakhsh, K.; McBean, E., 2010
In this study in Cambodia, the effluent of many ceramic and biosand filters had nitrite levels exceeding the WHO guideline levels for chronic exposure (a potential risk factor for blue baby syndrome).
Effect of production variables on microbiological removal in locally-produced ceramic filters for household water treatment.; Lantagne, D.; Klarman, M.; Mayer, A.; Preston, K.; Napotnik, J.; Jellison, K., 2010
The effectiveness of ceramic pot filters are effected by the clay:sawdust ratio and the type of "burnable" used. Whether the colloidal silver was painted on or burned in did not make a difference in this study.
Nitrification, denitrification, and ammonification occur in BSF. This can be a problem when influent water is very high in nitrogen (and very low in oxygen), as nitrite and nitrate levels may increase to dangerous levels.
Experiments in a lab found that a dual media column with a layer of manganese oxide coated sand and a layer of iron hydroxide coated sand was better at removing zinc than a column with just iron hydroxide coated sand. Both were better than a plain sand column at removing bacteria.
Improving Household Drinking Water Quality: Use of BioSand Filters in Cambodia; WorldBank, W.S.P.; Laing, K.; Sobsey, M.; Stauber, C., 2010
This study found that 88% of surveyed users sustained use of their BSFs (6 months to 8 years after implementation), had 95% E. coli reduction and 47% less diarrhoea. However, recontamination of water after filtration was an issue.
Households with a BSF in this very rigorous study had 47% less diarrhoeal disease than control households.
Field Evaluation of Long-Term Performance and Use of Biosand Filters in Posoltega, Nicaragua; Vanderzwaag, J.C.; Atwater, J.W.; Bartlett, H.; Baker, D., 2009
Long-term performance of filters 3 and 8 years old was good, with 96% removal of E.coli, but due to poor construction only 10% of households were still using their BSFs.
Decentralized systems for potable water and the potential of membrane technology; Peter-Varbanets, M.; Zurbrügg, C.; Swartz, C.; Pronk, W., 2009
A comprehensive review of the potential of membrane technologies in HWTS.
A model of the cost-benefit ratios for various intervention options for reducing cholera found that digging a borehole, installing BSFs, or school-based vaccination programs are usually better than community-based vaccination programs.