Research Papers

Displaying 61 - 70 of 89
Children in households with a BSF had 54% less diarrhoea than in control households.
The methodology used by Sobsey et al. (2008) to rank HWTS options was flawed. A "silver-bullet" approach is not appropriate, as complex local conditions must be accounted for.
Sobsey et al. defend their 2008 paper from criticism. Their evaluation was just a starting point based on available data, but all HWTS methods need more research.
There is enough evidence to state that ceramic filters are an effective form of HWT. There is not enough evidence for biosand filters, as more long term studies are required. The evidence suggests that SODIS, chlorination, and coagulation-chlorination are not effective in the long term.
E.coli samples analyzed with membrane filtration and m-coliBlue24 growth media had a coefficient of variation of 51%, with best results for colony counts of 15-150 per plate. Solarcult dipslides should not be used for present/absence testing.
The study by Chiew et al. criticizing the KAF had some experimental errors and may have suffered from experimental bias. The chemical and physical processes involved with zero-valent iron are complex.
Households with a BSF in this very rigorous study had 47% less diarrhoeal disease than control households.
Quarry sand was better than river or ocean sand in the first months after filter installation, but by one year there was no difference.
Ceramic filters and biosand filters are the most promising HWTS methods due to adequate water quantity, adequate quality, ease of use, cost, and low need for a supply chain. Studies have shown high continued usage rates for these technologies.