Research Papers

Displaying 41 - 50 of 89
A household-scale sand filter incorporating a biomass layer was developed and tested in the laboratory. Filters performed better with thicker biomass layers. Filter effectiveness increased up to day 30, and declined after day 75. (Not a BSF)
Addressing Water Quality Issues in Rural Cameroon with Household Biosand Filters; Klopfenstein, L.; Petrasky, L.; Winton, V.; Brown, J., 2011
Successful implementation of a BSF project requires years of involvement. Users require continued education and reminders to sustain motivation, and quality control of filters being constructed is necessary.
Virus removal in BSF improved with increased pause time and with increased filter ripening. Virus removal appears to be primarily due to the activity of the microbial community.
A BSF which was modified by placing a layer of iron-oxide coated sand inside the filter bed removed E.coli better than a standard BSF. The difference was largest towards the beginning of the filter run.
A household-scale sand filter was developed and tested in Pakistan. In the field test it removed 97% E.coli, Total Coliforms, and turbidity. (Not a BSF)
Almost 1/3 of household water samples that had been filtered by biosand or ceramic filters had nitrite levels higher than the WHO acute exposure guideline. Although filters decreased E. coli, they did not consistently provide low risk water.
In a study in Nicaragua, 77% of filters were still in use after 12 months. The filters removed 80% of E. coli, but there was recontamination in the storage buckets so the overall improvement was only 48%.
Rational design of domestic biosand filters; Kubare, M.; Haarhoff, J., 2010
The most important part of biosand filter design is the careful selection of appropriate filter media (i.e effective grain size, uniformity coefficient, porosity).
Microbial and chemical assessment of ceramic and BioSand water filters in rural Cambodia; Murphy, H.M.; Sampson, M.; Farahbakhsh, K.; McBean, E., 2010
In this study in Cambodia, the effluent of many ceramic and biosand filters had nitrite levels exceeding the WHO guideline levels for chronic exposure (a potential risk factor for blue baby syndrome).
Effect of production variables on microbiological removal in locally-produced ceramic filters for household water treatment.; Lantagne, D.; Klarman, M.; Mayer, A.; Preston, K.; Napotnik, J.; Jellison, K., 2010
The effectiveness of ceramic pot filters are effected by the clay:sawdust ratio and the type of "burnable" used. Whether the colloidal silver was painted on or burned in did not make a difference in this study.

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