Research Papers

Displaying 41 - 50 of 89
BSF's work best at removing bacteria and viruses when they have lower loading heads, lower maximum flow rates, finer sand, and longer pause periods.
A household-scale sand filter incorporating a biomass layer was developed and tested in the laboratory. Filters performed better with thicker biomass layers. Filter effectiveness increased up to day 30, and declined after day 75. (Not a BSF)
Addressing Water Quality Issues in Rural Cameroon with Household Biosand Filters; Klopfenstein, L.; Petrasky, L.; Winton, V.; Brown, J., 2011
Successful implementation of a BSF project requires years of involvement. Users require continued education and reminders to sustain motivation, and quality control of filters being constructed is necessary.
Virus removal in BSF improved with increased pause time and with increased filter ripening. Virus removal appears to be primarily due to the activity of the microbial community.
A BSF which was modified by placing a layer of iron-oxide coated sand inside the filter bed removed E.coli better than a standard BSF. The difference was largest towards the beginning of the filter run.
Small scale community and household approaches to water supply and treatment (Biosand filters, Ceramic filters, Chlorine, etc) each have their place in the provision of water to urban and peri-urban slums. Each has features making it appropriate in different settings.
A filter with coarser sand performed worse than one with finer sand, and a filter with a layer of iron filings in the media performed better than a regular filter.
In a study in Nicaragua, 77% of filters were still in use after 12 months. The filters removed 80% of E. coli, but there was recontamination in the storage buckets so the overall improvement was only 48%.
Almost 1/3 of household water samples that had been filtered by biosand or ceramic filters had nitrite levels higher than the WHO acute exposure guideline. Although filters decreased E. coli, they did not consistently provide low risk water.
Rational design of domestic biosand filters; Kubare, M.; Haarhoff, J., 2010
The most important part of biosand filter design is the careful selection of appropriate filter media (i.e effective grain size, uniformity coefficient, porosity).