Research Papers

Displaying 61 - 70 of 89
E.coli samples analyzed with membrane filtration and m-coliBlue24 growth media had a coefficient of variation of 51%, with best results for colony counts of 15-150 per plate. Solarcult dipslides should not be used for present/absence testing.
The study by Chiew et al. criticizing the KAF had some experimental errors and may have suffered from experimental bias. The chemical and physical processes involved with zero-valent iron are complex.
Households with a BSF in this very rigorous study had 47% less diarrhoeal disease than control households.
Field Evaluation of Long-Term Performance and Use of Biosand Filters in Posoltega, Nicaragua; Vanderzwaag, J.C.; Atwater, J.W.; Bartlett, H.; Baker, D., 2009
Long-term performance of filters 3 and 8 years old was good, with 96% removal of E.coli, but due to poor construction only 10% of households were still using their BSFs.
Decentralized systems for potable water and the potential of membrane technology; Peter-Varbanets, M.; Zurbrügg, C.; Swartz, C.; Pronk, W., 2009
A comprehensive review of the potential of membrane technologies in HWTS.
A model of the cost-benefit ratios for various intervention options for reducing cholera found that digging a borehole, installing BSFs, or school-based vaccination programs are usually better than community-based vaccination programs.
More work is needed to optimize the Kanchan filter for arsenic removal. Water flows too quickly through the nail bed, so that no difference was found in influent arsenic levels and those in the filter standing head after flowing through the nails.
Quarry sand was better than river or ocean sand in the first months after filter installation, but by one year there was no difference.
Ceramic filters and biosand filters are the most promising HWTS methods due to adequate water quantity, adequate quality, ease of use, cost, and low need for a supply chain. Studies have shown high continued usage rates for these technologies.